The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists - followers of Infante Carlos and his descendants - rallied to the cry of "God, Country, and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day. The Carlist Wars had a strong regional component, given that the new order called into question region–specific law arrangements and customs kept for centuries. When Ferdinand VII of Spain died in 1833, his fourth wife Maria Cristina became Queen Regent on behalf of their infant daughter Isabella II. This splintered the country into two factions known as the Cristinos or Isabelinos and the Carlists. The Cristinos were the supporters of the Queen Regent and her government, and were the party of the Liberals. The Carlists were the supporters of Carlos V, a pretender to the throne and brother of the deceased Ferdinand VII. Carlos denied the validity of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830 that abolished the semi Salic Law he was born before 1830. They wanted a return to autocratic monarchy. While some historians count three wars, other authors and popular usage refer to the existence of two big engagements, the First and the Second, with the 1846–1849 events being taken as a minor episode. The First Carlist War 1833–1840 lasted more than seven years and the fighting spanned most of the country at one time or another, although the main conflict centered on the Carlist homelands of the Basque Country and Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia. The Second Carlist War 1846–1849 was a minor Catalan uprising. The rebels tried to install Carlos VI on the throne. In Galicia, the uprising was on a smaller scale and was put down by General Ramon Maria Narvaez. The Third Carlist War 1872–1876 began in the aftermath of the deposition of one ruling monarch and abdication of another. Queen Isabella II was overthrown by a conspiracy of liberal generals in 1868, and left Spain in some disgrace. The Cortes Parliament replaced her with Amadeo, the Duke of Aosta and second son of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy. Then, when the Spanish elections of 1872 resulted in government violence against Carlist candidates and a swing away from Carlism, the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, decided that only force of arms could win him the throne. The Third Carlist War began. It lasted until 1876. The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939 was considered by the Carlists as another crusade against secularism. In spite of the victory of their side, General Francisco Franco frustrated the pretensions of Carlist monarchism; he subsumed their militias into the Nationalist army and their political party, the Traditionalist Communion, into his "National Movement", the FET y de las JONS.
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced but politically divided among several states, became the main battleground for European supremacy. The conflicts involved the major powers of Italy and Europe, in a series of events that followed the end of the 40-year long Peace of Lodi agreed in 1454 with the formation of the Italic League. The collapse of the alliance in the 1490s left Italy open to the ambitions of Charles VIII of France, who invaded the Kingdom of Naples in 1494 on the ground of a dynastic claim. The French were however forced to leave Naples after the Republic of Venice formed an alliance with Maximilian I of Austria and Ferdinand V of Spain. In 1499, Louis XII of France initiated a second campaign against Naples by first taking control of the Duchy of Milan thanks to Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI and condottiero for Louis XII, marking an open alliance between the Papacy and France. The second war ended in 1503, when Ferdinand of Spain already ruler of Sicily and Sardinia captured the Kingdom of Naples from Louis XII. The new Pope, Julius II 1503-1513, reversed the policies of the Borgias and exiled Cesare. With France taking over almost all of Northern Italy after defeating Venice at the Battle of Agnadello, and Ferdinand of Aragon emerging as ruler of the whole south, Julius II planned to" free Italy from the barbarians” and orchestrated the recapture of the peninsula. After Spain recognized the Two Sicilies as a papal fief, Julius II personally led his armed forces at the Siege of Mirandola, and subsequently forced the French of Louis XII out of Italy in alliance with Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire. The sudden death of Julius II and the Battle of Marignano led to the restoration of the status quo ante bellum in 1516: the treaties of Brussels and Noyon, mediated by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Leo X, recognized French control in the north excluding the Venetian republic and Spanish control in the south. War resumed in 1521 as Pope Leo X and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor expelled French forces from Milan. Francis I of France reacted by descending in Italy and fighting Imperial forces at the Battle of Pavia 1525, where he was captured and forced to give French territory to the Habsburg Netherlands of Charles V. Following his liberation, Francis I initiated a new war in Italy during which mutinous Germanic troops of Lutheran faith sacked Rome 1527 and expelled the Medici from Florence. After ordering the retreat of Imperial troops from the Papal States, Charles V restored the occupied French territory to Francis I on the condition that France abandoned northern Italy "Peace of the Ladies". At the Congress of Bologna in 1530, Charles V received the Imperial title of King of Italy by Pope Clement VII. In exchange, the Pope obtained the restoration of the Medici family as the ruling dynasty of Florence. Following Catholic victories in Vienna and Tunis against the Ottomans, a new congress 1536 was held in Rome between Charles V and Pope Paul III to discuss the hypothesis of an ecumenical council to deal with Protestantism. Despite fears of conciliarism within the curia, Pope Paul III ultimately saw a council as an opportunity to end the Catholic Imperial-French wars in Italy by uniting the anti-calvinist French royalty with the Habsburgs against a common enemy. Indeed, the conflict had resumed at the Lombard-Piedmontese border with the French occupation of the Savoyard state soon after Charles V took the vacant Duchy of Milan. Therefore, Pope Paul III favored the "Peace of Nice" between Francis I and the Emperor 1538 as well as the subsequent "Peace of Crespy" 1544. The Council of Trent began in 1545, but Lutheran princes refused to recognize it with the result of entering a war with the Emperor quickly lost and allowing the Pope to dominate the council and initiate the counter-reformation. Around 1547, papal and imperial factions clashed for political supremacy and a series of conspiracies took place in several courts of Italy. The assassination of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma and son of the Pope, led to the suspension of the council until Pope Julius III reconvened it with the intention to promote a reconciliation of the defeated Lutherans with Charles V. In 1551, Henri II of France invaded Tuscany and supported Siena in a war against Charles V, while the Duke of Florence supported the Emperor. In addition, France captured the Three Bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire with the support of Lutherans and formed an alliance with the Ottoman Empire who had defeated Charles V in Algiers and Budapest in the 1540s in order to invade Corsica. Charles V responded by forming an alliance with the Kingdom of England and by suspending the reconciliation with the German Lutherans. Florence annexed Siena after a long siege and the victory over the French-Sienese at the Battle of Scannagallo, and the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria recaptured Corsica, but England lost the Pas-de-Calais to France. Charles V, facing the prospect of a long-lasting alliance between all of his enemies, signed the Peace of Augsburg with the Protestant princes and abdicated by dividing the Habsburg Empire between the Austrian Habsburgs of his brother Ferdinand of Austria and the Spanish Habsburgs of his son Philip II of Spain. War continued between the Habsburgs and France, with the latter being defeated by a Spanish-Imperial army led by Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy who regained its estates at the Battle of St. Quentin 1557. Nevertheless, the French recovered and the conflict was prolonged until a compromise was reached at the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. The end of the wars allowed Pope Pius IV and Carlo Borromeo to resume the Council of Trent and complete it in 1563, initiating the Catholic Reformation and Baroque period of Italy.
Startenhuizen ˌɦoeyzə") is a small village at the border of the municipals Het Hogeland and Loppersum in the northeastern Netherlands. It is divided in two parts, the biggest in Loppersum, and a few farms in Eemsmond. Population: About 175
Starokrzepice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzepice, within Klobuck County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies approximately 7 kilometres south-west of Krzepice, 20 km west of Klobuck, and 80 km north of the regional capital Katowice. The village has a population of 1.319. It lies on the Liswarta river. Currently in Starokrzepice there are about 10 streets. The main street is Oleska, which traverses the entire village. Other streets may be counted as a settlement. Starokrzepice has a volunteer fire brigade OSP, Health Centre and Post Office. There is also a Youth Brass Band conducted by the OSP and Slawomir Krysia majorette team. In addition, it has many production, retail and service companies and shops.
Warsill is a civil parish in Harrogate district, North Yorkshire, England. There is no village in the parish. It consists of a few scattered farms 5 miles north west of Ripon. In 1961 the population of the parish was 42. The population was estimated at 70 in 2015. Warsill was historically an extra parochial area. It became a civil parish in 1858. Today it shares a grouped parish council with Bishop Thornton. The toponym, first recorded in 1132 as Warthsala, probably derives from the Old English weard sæl, meaning "watch castle". In the Middle Ages there was a grange of Fountains Abbey here, and Warsill Hall Farmhouse, a 17th-century Grade II listed building, now stands on its site.
Starstylers is a Dutch Eurodance musical project. The group is composed of DJ NLSiO, singer Dorien Driessens of Gemert, and Robin Drost. The first single of Starstylers, with the original singer of Michy, Michelle Lemmens, was "Keep On Moving". It was released in 2005 and became a hit in Europe. It features a sampling of the melody of the song "Ecuador", originally performed by the trio Sash!, which was popular in 1997. In 2006, "Keep on Moving" was introduced in the Top 100 and reached the 14th position within two weeks. The song was found in the Top 10 list of many European countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Turkey. The single was released in the United States and the United Kingdom during the summer of 2006, and was featured in the trailer for the movie The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift in the UK. Their second single, "Higher", was released on July 31, 2006. They are currently planning a tour of Europe. Singer Dorien Driessens also performs in the rock band Boston Tea Party, and she is responsible for the backing vocals of Djumbo.
Anna Alfredovna Starobinets is a Russian writer and scriptwriter who has been called the "Russian Queen of Horror". She has published novels, short stories and childrens books, and describes herself as writing "horror and supernatural fiction for adults, and also fairy and detective stories for children".
The Magdeburger Startgerat is a missle, also known as the Magdeburg pilot rocket and 10-L was intended to ensure the first manned rocket flight in history. Despite successful tests, the pilot flight originally planned for March 1933 never took place. After several delays, the project was finally stopped in 1934 when the National Socialists prohibited all private missile attempts.
Ninja Wars is a 1982 Japanese jidaigeki film directed by Kōsei Saitō. It is based on Futaro Yamadas novel of the same title.
2005 Gaz de France Stars
The 2005 Gaz de France Stars was a tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. It was the 2nd edition of the Gaz de France Stars, and was part of the WTA International tournaments of the 2005 WTA Tour. It took place in Hasselt, Belgium, in late October, 2005.
Звездные врата (фильм)
"Звёздные врата" - научно-фантастический кинофильм 1994 года режиссёра и сценариста Роланда Эммериха, в котором впервые была представлена вселенная "Звёздных врат". Обладатель премии "Сатурн" за лучший научно-фантастический фильм. Изначально задумывался как первая часть трилогии, но компания "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer" решила сначала снять телесериал.
Улица Героев Войны
Список серий сериала «Ментовские войны»
Побережье Богов Войны
"Побережье Богов Войны" - гонконгский фильм режиссёра Джимми Ван Юя, вышедший в 1973 году. По сюжету китайский патриот и фехтовальщик, Сяо Фэн, противостоит японским пиратам во времена правления династии Мин.
Механоиды 3: Протокол Войны
Механоиды 3: Протокол Войны - компьютерная игра, находящаяся в процессе разработки. Главным игровым дизайнером и сценаристом выступает Булат "Dust" Даутов, также работавший над предыдущими частями серии игр Механоиды, включая Механоиды и Механоиды 2: Война Кланов. Игра использует игровой движок Unreal Engine 4.
Хронология Первой мировой войны
Мексикано-индейские войны - серия вооруженных конфликтов между Испанией, затем Мексикой против мексиканских индейцев. Они начались с вторжения в Мексику Фернана Кортеса и завоевания ацтекской империи в 1519 году, и продолжались вплоть до Войны рас 1933.
Межсоюзнические конференции Второй мировой войны
Межсоюзнические конференции Второй мировой войны - встречи представителей стран антигитлеровской коалиции во время Второй мировой войны для обсуждения широкого круга вопросов совместных действий против общего врага и обустройства послевоенного мира:
Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны
Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - однотипные монументы в России, созданные с целью увековечить память о суровых и героических буднях людей, трудившихся в народном хозяйстве СССР в годы Великой Отечественной войны. Памятный знак работы скульптора А. А. Аполлонова изготавливается в Краснодарском крае в городе Кропоткин в рамках общероссийского проекта "Аллея Российской Славы". Представляет собой стелу сложной формы с барельефом, изображающим тружеников тыла - женщину и ребёнка за станком. Над фигурами размещена лента с надписью рельефными буквами: "Все для фронта, все для победы". В нижней части монумента надпись: "Потомки благодарны Вам, родные, за то, что Вы высточли и победили". Высота памятника - 2.4 метра, вес - 3000 килограмм. Данные памятные знаки установлены в следующих населённых пунктах: Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Саратов. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Белая Калитва. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - посёлок Остафьево. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Лысьва. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Ипатово. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Камышин. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Ростов-на-Дону. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Анапа. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Гулькевичи. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Светлоград. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - посёлок Рогатая Балка. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Москва, Кузьминки. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - посёлок Супсех. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Кропоткин. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Цхинвал. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Вологда. Памятный знак труженикам тыла в годы войны - город Морозовск. Некоторые знаки
Мемориалы Первой мировой войны
Мемориалы Первой мировой войны - мемориальные комплексы и отдельные вновь возведённые архитектурные сооружения; отдельные монументы, памятники и иные архитектурные объекты; мемориальные доски и иные памятные знаки установленные на исторических зданиях, в местах сражений и захоронений; музейные экспозиции и другие объекты, а также мероприятия, посвящённые Первой мировой войне, её событиям, героям и жертвам.
no need to download or install
Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!online intellectual game →